General Robert E. Lee commanded the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia during the American Civil War. When Lee took command in 1862 he emerged as a shrewd tactician and battlefield commander and won most of his battles against superior Union armies. However, when General William T Sherman left Atlanta in December 1864 and when hopes of England joining the South faded, the end of the American Civil War drew near. Lee began agressive and questionable campaigns into Union territory but his assaults failed miserably. With limited Confederate manpower, the Union forced General Lee to evacuate the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia on April 1, 1865. Lee subsequently surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant on April 9, 1865, effectively ending the war.